Diamond Workflow

Diamond Requirements

A diamond must implement the following:

  1. A diamond contains a fallback function and can include immutable functions defined within it.
  2. A diamond associates function selectors with facets.
  3. When an external function is called on a diamond the diamond’s fallback function is executed. The fallback function finds the facet and function match and executes the function using delegatecall. a. If there is no facet for the function an optional default function can be executed.
    b. If there’s no facet and no default function, the execution reverts.
  4. DiamondCut event is emitted to record when Functions are added/replaced/removed.
  5. A diamond implements the DiamondLoupe interface.
  6. All immutable functions must be emitted in the DiamondCut event as new functions added. Loupe functions must return information about immutable functions if they exist. The facet address for an immutable function is the diamond’s address.
  7. Any attempt to delete or replace an immutable function must revert.

The diamond address is the address that users interact with. The diamond address does not change. Only facet addresses can change by using the diamondCut function, or other function.

Create Diamond

Libraries and Interfaces

//Libraries and Interfaces used by Diamond
import { LibDiamond } from "./libraries/LibDiamond.sol";
import { IDiamondCut } from "./interfaces/IDiamondCut.sol";
import { IDiamondLoupe } from "./interfaces/IDiamondLoupe.sol";
import { IERC173 } from "./interfaces/IERC173.sol";
import { IERC165} from "./interfaces/IERC165.sol";

Diamond Struct

// This is used in diamond constructor
// more arguments are added to this struct
// this avoids stack too deep errors
struct DiamondArgs {
address owner;
address init;
bytes initCalldata;

Diamond Contract

* Implementation of a diamond.
contract Diamond {
constructor(IDiamondCut.FacetCut[] memory _diamondCut, DiamondArgs memory _args) payable {
LibDiamond.diamondCut(_diamondCut, _args.init, _args.initCalldata);
// Code can be added here to perform actions and set state variables.
// Find facet for function that is called and execute the
// function if a facet is found and return any value.
fallback() external payable {
LibDiamond.DiamondStorage storage ds;
bytes32 position = LibDiamond.DIAMOND_STORAGE_POSITION;
// get diamond storage
assembly {
ds.slot := position
// get facet from function selector
address facet = ds.facetAddressAndSelectorPosition[msg.sig].facetAddress;
if(facet == address(0)) {
revert FunctionNotFound(msg.sig);
// Execute external function from facet using delegatecall and return any value.
assembly {
// copy function selector and any arguments
calldatacopy(0, 0, calldatasize())
// execute function call using the facet
let result := delegatecall(gas(), facet, 0, calldatasize(), 0, 0)
// get any return value
returndatacopy(0, 0, returndatasize())
// return any return value or error back to the caller
switch result
case 0 {
revert(0, returndatasize())
default {
return(0, returndatasize())
receive() external payable {}

Error Handling

// When no function exists for function called
error FunctionNotFound(bytes4 _functionSelector);

Create Facets


facetCuts variable is facetCut[] that contains functions added during Diamond deployment

* EIP-2535 Diamonds: https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2535
import { IDiamondCut } from "../interfaces/IDiamondCut.sol";
import { LibDiamond } from "../libraries/LibDiamond.sol";
// Remember to add the loupe functions from DiamondLoupeFacet to the diamond.
// The loupe functions are required by the EIP2535 Diamonds standard
contract DiamondCutFacet is IDiamondCut {
/// @notice Add/replace/remove any number of functions and optionally execute
/// a function with delegatecall
/// @param _diamondCut Contains the facet addresses and function selectors
/// @param _init The address of the contract or facet to execute _calldata
/// @param _calldata A function call, including function selector and arguments
/// _calldata is executed with delegatecall on _init
function diamondCut(
FacetCut[] calldata _diamondCut,
address _init,
bytes calldata _calldata
) external override {
LibDiamond.diamondCut(_diamondCut, _init, _calldata);

Create DiamondInit

Use the init function to initialize state variables

contract DiamondInit {
// You can add parameters to this function in order to pass in
// data to set your own state variables
function init() external {
// adding ERC165 data
LibDiamond.DiamondStorage storage ds = LibDiamond.diamondStorage();
ds.supportedInterfaces[type(IERC165).interfaceId] = true;
ds.supportedInterfaces[type(IDiamondCut).interfaceId] = true;
ds.supportedInterfaces[type(IDiamondLoupe).interfaceId] = true;
ds.supportedInterfaces[type(IERC173).interfaceId] = true;
// add your own state variables
// EIP-2535 specifies that the `diamondCut` function takes two optional
// arguments: address _init and bytes calldata _calldata
// These arguments are used to execute an arbitrary function using delegatecall
// in order to set state variables in the diamond during deployment or an upgrade
// More info here: https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2535#diamond-interface

Deploy DiamondInit

// Deploy DiamondInit
// DiamondInit provides a function that is called when the diamond is upgraded or deployed to initialize state variables
// Read about how the diamondCut function works in the EIP2535 Diamonds standard
const DiamondInit = await ethers.getContractFactory('DiamondInit')
const diamondInit = await DiamondInit.deploy()
await diamondInit.deployed()
console.log('DiamondInit deployed:', diamondInit.address)

Create Function Call

// Creating a function call
// This call gets executed during deployment and can also be executed in upgrades
// It is executed with delegatecall on the DiamondInit address.
let functionCall = diamondInit.interface.encodeFunctionData('init')

Deploy Facets

Deploy DiamondCut, DiamondLoup, etc

// Deploy facets and set the `facetCuts` variable
console.log('Deploying facets')
const FacetNames = [
// The `facetCuts` variable is the FacetCut[] that contains the functions to add during diamond deployment
const facetCuts = []
for (const FacetName of FacetNames) {
const Facet = await ethers.getContractFactory(FacetName)
const facet = await Facet.deploy()
await facet.deployed()
console.log(`${FacetName} deployed: ${facet.address}`)
facetAddress: facet.address,
action: FacetCutAction.Add,
functionSelectors: getSelectors(facet)

Deploy Diamond

Set arguments for Diamond constructor

// Setting arguments that will be used in the diamond constructor
const diamondArgs = {
owner: ContractOwner.address
calldata: functionCall


// deploy Diamond
const Diamond = await ethers.getContractFactory('Diamond')
const diamond = await Diamond.deploy(facetCuts, diamondArgs)
await diamond.deployed()
console.log('Diamond deployed:', diamond.address)
// returning the address of the diamond
return diamond.address
// We recommend this pattern to be able to use async/await everywhere
// and properly handle errors.
if (require.main === module) {
.then(() => process.exit(0))
.catch(error => {
exports.deployDiamond = deployDiamond

Upgrade Diamond